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The Internet of things (IoT) and MQTT

Telemetry or M2M module using MQTT protocol for IoT implementation

Many applications today require a Telemetry that is a technology that allows the measurement and communication of information of interest to the operator or system developer. Systems that require instructions and data sent to them to be operated require the corresponding telemetry, or remote control.

Today the concept has definitions such as Machine to Machine (M2M) being a broad label that can be used to describe any technology that allows networked devices to exchange information and perform actions without manual assistance from humans.

As objects become embedded in sensors and gain communication capabilities, the new information networks promise to create new business models, improve business processes, and reduce costs and risks.

We can then consider that any device with the capability of Telemetry or M2M to be considered an IoT (Internet-of-things) device.

M2M communication is often used for remote monitoring. In re-stocking products, for example, a vending machine can send a message to the distributor when a particular item is down. Communication M2M is an important aspect of warehouse management, remote control, robotics, traffic control, logistics services, supply chain management, fleet management and telemedicine. It forms the basis for a concept known as the Internet of Things.

The implementation of M2M goes through several methods however in recent times a protocol called Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT), created by IBM in the late 1990s, has been widely used both to implement IoT and IIoT.

The MQTT is not as sophisticated as AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol), which has more features and usage scenarios, but is simple enough without considering features such as security, quality of service and ease of implementation. These characteristics make MQTT a good candidate for deployments and uses in embedded systems, even though the competition is fierce.


What is MQTT?

The Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol is present in the day-to-day Internet of Things (IoT) and its main use is to make the machines talk, also known as Machine-to-Machine (M2M).

Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a fast and lightweight communication protocol designed for the Internet of Things. It has its origins in IBM (where it was originally developed by Andy Stanford-Clark) and has since been sent to the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) for standardization, where the current version of the protocol standard is 3.1 .

The terminal specification MQTT V3.1 Protocol Specification states that its purpose is to be a "lightweight broker-based" publish / subscribe messaging protocol designed to be open, simple, lightweight, and easy to deploy.

In the period since its introduction, the "easy to implement" part has certainly proven true, since several different libraries implementing MQTT clients have been developed. You can find links to virtually all of them on the Eclipse Paho project page.

MQTT is perfect for use on embedded devices because it:

It is asynchronous, with several different levels of quality of service, which is important in cases where Internet connections are not reliable.

Send short, accurate messages that make it useful for low bandwidth situations.

It does not require much software to deploy a client, which makes it great for devices like Arduino with limited memory.

MQTT is the protocol from which the IBM IoT Foundation QuickStart was developed to accept entries.

The basic implementation of the MQTT protocol consists of a Server (BROKER) that is common to all through a known address either by direct IP or through an address by name (DNS).

BROKER (Server) can be easily implemented by the user or can be used free servers spread around the world.

To this Server or BROKER to connect all the devices that automatically generate information or Publish, BROKER in turn receives this information and saves it in a list specially created for this publisher through which it describes it.

On the other hand, any other device that needs this information also contacts this same BROKER and requests information in this list with the same ID of the desired Publish, so everything in this is transmitted to the requester normally defined as Subscriber.

Based on this technology, residential, industrial, marine, medical, geotechnical, automotive and other applications can count on a monitoring and control from intelligent meters (water, energy, gas, etc.), temperature control, level, volume etc, lighting, intelligent devices , Security systems (Web Cameras (Plug in Play), etc.) and management, field measuring instruments, AtoN AIS buoys, etc ...